Generally, biodiversity is considered at three levels: the genetic diversity within species, the diversity species within an area and the diversity of various kinds of ecosystems or habitats within a large area. It has been found out from research that the Asia-Pacific region has high biological diversity at the above-mentioned three levels. However, it is dwindling in recent years due to less attention paid to its development.
Being very significant to preserve biodiversity of the world, nowadays tropical forests in most countries, especially in developing and least developed countries, have been under heavy pressure due to encroachment of increased population and also because of illegal export of timber to neighboring countries. This is why some wild animals and birds have lost their habitats, and biodiversity is being rapidly decreased in these countries.
Though climate, atmosphere and some of the world’s natural resources can be regulated for the use of sustainable development, it is very difficult to recover the diversity once lost. However, this fact has not been realized by most concerned people. Actually, experts on biodiversity are of the opinion that as many as 20 percent of the animals and birds will become extinct in future if strenuous efforts are not made to safeguard them. Despite this fact, the concerned persons of most countries are not aware of this.
Due to the diversity of physiography because of the latitudinal and climatic variations, Nepal is considered rich in biodiversity. Also, due to its extended latitudinal climate and wide plant biodiversity, it has a great potential of zoological realms. However, in recent times, due to population growth and illegal cutting down of trees, deforestation has increased here. Consequently, biodiversity has been much threatened.
Though millions of rupees are spent here every year for biodiversity conservation, the expected outcome has not been obtained so for. In fact, it has become indispensable to bring about innovations in our plans and programs regarding biodiversity conservation. But the concerned authorities have not paid special attention to this fact as yet.
Tropical forests play a very important role in securing the biodiversity of a country. In this regard, biotechnology has been found most effective in some countries to restore such forests. Hence, it has become an urgent need to use such technology to protect forests and conserve biodiversity here.