Theory of OS
If you have a computer, then you have heard about operating systems. Any desktop or laptop PC that you buy normally comes pre-loaded with Windows XP. Macintosh computers come pre-loaded with OS X. Many corporate servers use the Linux or UNIX operating systems. The operating system (OS) is the first thing loaded onto the computer — without the operating system, a computer is useless.
An operating system creates the ability to:
• serve a variety of purposes
• interact with users in more complicated ways
• keep up with needs that change over time
All desktop computers have operating systems. The most common are the Windows family of operating systems developed by Microsoft, the Macintosh operating systems developed by Apple and the UNIX family of operating systems (which have been developed by a whole history of individuals, corporations and collaborators). There are hundreds of other operating systems available for special-purpose applications, including specializations for mainframes, robotics, manufacturing, real-time control systems and so on.
What does it do?
At the simplest level, an operating system does two things:
1. It manages the hardware and software resources of the system. In a desktop computer, these resources include such things as the processor, memory, disk space, etc. (On a cell phone, they include the keypad, the screen, the address book, the phone dialer, the battery and the network connection.)
2. It provides a stable, consistent way for applications to deal with the hardware without having to know all the details of the hardware.
The first task, managing the hardware and software resources, is very important, as various programs and input methods compete for the attention of the central processing unit (CPU) and demand memory, storage and input/output (I/O) bandwidth for their own purposes.
In this capacity, the operating system plays the role of the good parent, making sure that each application gets the necessary resources while playing nicely with all the other applications, as well as husbanding the limited capacity of the system to the greatest good of all the users and applications.
The second task, providing a consistent application interface, is especially important if there is to be more than one of a particular type of computer using the operating system, or if the hardware making up the computer is ever open to change. A consistent application program interface (API) allows a software developer to write an application on one computer and have a high level of confidence that it will run on another computer of the same type, even if the amount of memory or the quantity of storage is different on the two machines.
Even if a particular computer is unique, an operating system can ensure that applications continue to run when hardware upgrades and updates occur. This is because the operating system and not the application is charged with managing the hardware and the distribution of its resources. One of the challenges facing developers is keeping their operating systems flexible enough to run hardware from the thousands of vendors manufacturing computer equipment.
Today’s systems can accommodate thousands of different printers, disk drives and special peripherals in any possible combination.
What kinds are there?
Within the broad family of operating systems, there are generally four types, categorised based on the types of computers they control and the sort of applications they support. The broad categories are:
• Real-time operating system (RTOS): Real-time operating systems are used to control machinery, scientific instruments and industrial systems. An RTOS typically has very little user-interface capability, and no end-user utilities, since the system will be a “sealed box” when delivered for use. A very important part of an RTOS is managing the resources of the computer so that a particular operation executes in precisely the same amount of time every time it occurs. In a complex machine, having a part move more quickly just because system resources are available may be just as catastrophic as having it not move at all because the system is busy.
• Single-user, single task: As the name implies, this operating system is designed to manage the computer so that one user can effectively do one thing at a time. The Palm OS for Palm ha-ndheld computers is a good example of a modern single-user, single-task operating system.
• Single-user, multi-tasking: This is the type of operating system most people use on their desktop and laptop computers today. Microsoft’s Windows and Apple’s MacOS platforms are both examples of operating systems that will let a single user have several programs in operation at the same time. For example, it’s entirely possible for a Windows user to be writing a note in a word processor while downloading a file from the Internet while printing the text of an e-mail message.
• Multi-user: A multi-user operating system allows many different users to take advantage of the computer’s resources simultaneously. The operating system must make sure that the requirements of the various users are balanced, and that each of the programs they are using has sufficient and separate resources so that a problem with one user doesn’t affect the entire community of users. Unix, VMS and mainframe operating systems, such as MVS, are examples of multi-user operating systems. — Agencies