Six Stroke Engine
The Beare Head is a completely new development of the internal combustion engine. Termed a six-stroke due to the radical hybridisation of two- and four-stroke technology, the device achieves increased torque and power output, better fuel economy and cleaner burning with reduced emissions, longer service intervals, and considerably reduced tooling costs when compared with a conventional OHC four-stroke design.
Diesel Emissions System
Ford Motor Company’s patented Onboard Reductant Delivery (ORD) system, developed by Ford’s Scientific Research Lab, has been awarded with R&D 100 Award. The ORD system enables exhaust treatment systems to help meet stringent future diesel emissions standards worldwide, including the US Tier 2 and European Stage IV and V limits for smog-forming emissions. The ORD system can be easily retrofitted onto existing diesel vehicles for approximately one-tenth of the cost of existing retrofit systems. The Ford ORD system is an air-assisted reductant injection system. Reductants, or reducing agents, are required by almost all diesel after-treatment devices dealing with oxides of nitrogen and particulate mater to enhance the efficiency and durability of the device. Reductants can include fluids such as diesel fuel or urea water solutions. To be effective, these reductants must be added quickly, as well as be delivered in precisely measured and finely dispersed quantities. In addition, the delivery system must be able to withstand the high temperatures and harsh environment surrounding the automobile exhaust system. The Ford ORD system can supply any liquid form of reductant at any location needed for these applications. Unlike existing reductant-delivery systems, Ford’s ORD system has only three components—an air supply, reductant injector, and a reductant reservoir. It provides a more than 75 per cent reduction in components, cost, size, weight, noise, and energy consumption when compared with competitor products.
Variable Cam Timing
The new 5.4-liter Triton V-8 engine that powers Ford’s F-150 is designed with three valves per cylinder, variable-cam timing, and a host of other features that provide increased power along with improved refinement and fuel efficiency. This design allows Ford engineers to optimize intake-and exhaust-valve actuation across the rev range. It represents the industry’s first mass application of dual-equal variable-cam timing, which shifts the intake and exhaust valve timing together. In combination with precise control of spark timing, fuel injection, and use of electrically controlled Charge Motion Control Valves in the intake ports, this technology produces class-leading power and torque, particularly at the lower engine speeds that are so important to applications such as towing and heavy hauling.
Variable-Cam Timing offers multiple benefits. The new three-valve cylinder head uses a single overhead camshaft for each bank of cylinders. The cams press down on roller-finger cam followers to open the intake and exhaust valves, which are closed by coil springs as in all Ford’s V-8 engines. Conventional camshafts are permanently synchronized with the engine’s crankshaft so that they operate the valves at a specific point in each combustion cycle. In the modular two-valve 5.4-liter V-8 engine, the intake valve opens slightly before the piston reaches the top of the cylinder and closes about 60 degrees after the piston reaches the bottom of the stroke on every cycle, no matter what the engine speed or load is. Variable-cam timing allows the valves to be operated at different points in the combustion cycle, to provide performance that is precisely tailored to the engine’s specific speed and load at that moment. The timing is set to allow the best overall performance across the engine’s normal operating range. The result is enhanced efficiency under low-load conditions, such as at idle or highway cruising, and increased power for brisk acceleration.