In the present context, “inclusive development” has become the prerequisite by all means for improving the standard of the lives of women, dalits, Madhesis, disable, indigenous nationalities, and the poor. Institutional, structural, and legal obstacles are required to be removed for ending their long-term deprivation so as to ensure their inclusion into the mainstream and subsequent assertion of their social, cultural, economic and human development. It, in real terms, means the practical transformation of the ideals of loktantra that the country has embraced after so much conflict and struggle.

The attempts relating to empowerment of the deprived groups and inclusion help to effectuate the process of social inclusion. Such efforts need to focus on economic, social, civic and psychological empowerment of deprived groups. Inclusion should correct the attitudes and treatment of the policy makers and service providers towards the deprived groups, change discriminatory laws, social values and doctrines, and increase the participation of the deprived groups in policy making positions and processes through proportional representation, reservation or any other appropriate approaches.

A long-term objective of social inclusion is to build a just and prosperous modern nation. Moreover, it aims to improve the human development of the deprived groups by guaranteeing their proportional participation in all state structures, decision making processes and services. Some strategies should be made elemental in the

accomplishment of these objectives. They relate to making of legal provisions made for social inclusion. Any kind of discrimination based on race, language, culture, religion, location, gender, economic and physical condition are

required to be eliminated.

A substantial participation of men, women and children of the deprived groups should be guaranteed in processes of policy making, planning, implementation, supervision and evaluation. Three dimensions of social inclusion are access to resources, services and opportunities, empowerment, identity assertions and capacity building, and planning, implementation respectively. Monitoring and evaluation must be based on policies, laws, values and structures.

In the course of planning and implementing programs for the deprived groups and regions, priority needs to be given to the most marginalized among them. Programs for the deprived groups should be conducted through their representative organizations and focus is to be given to their empowerment. A policy of positive discrimination and reservation is required to be implemented in the area of education, health, employment, participation, capacity building, and public service for the socioeconomic security of the deprived.

National identity needs to be enhanced by protection and development of languages, literatures, arts, and traditional knowledge and skill and culture of the marginalized groups. Surveys are to be conducted to identify the languages spoken inside the country. It is necessary to introduce specific target-oriented programs to improve people’s lives considered unacceptable on the ground of socioeconomic aspects like health and education.

Some model programs must be introduced in backward places like Karnali and other bordered and geographically uncongenial hinterlands so as to uplift their status to the average standard of the relatively developed regions. Necessary policies are required to be implemented for the development of such regions as per the recommendations of the Regional Development Strategy studies.

The state needs to increase investment in the backward regions and communities with the help of Geographical Information System. In view of addressing the issues related to women, dalits, Madhesis, disabled, laborers and indigenous nationalities and for effectively conducting programs for their overall development, appropriate commissions, committees and councils with definite rights and scopes must be formed.

Physical infrastructures should be made disable-friendly. The access of deprived groups (women, dalits, Madhesis, disables, laborers and indigenous nationalities) will be increased in technical and vocational education. Emphasis is to be given on the operation of development projects with vision of the proportional development of the deprived people and places. Provisions are required to be made for enforcing the spirit of a secular state with due respect to religious equality and independence.

Settlement and employment opportunities are to be provided to landless indigenous nationalities, liberated Kamaiyas (farm laborers), ploughmen, pastorals, dalits and Madhesis. Development of farm

laborers and landless people should get major attention. The overall economic structure of the country is to be made inclusive. Necessary policies are required to be devised for study, research, supervision and evaluation of inclusive development. The present government should be pragmatic in its approach.

In the course of planning and implementing programs for the deprived groups and regions, priority needs to

be given to the most marginalized among them. Programs for the deprived groups should be conducted through their representative organizations and focus given to their empowerment