TVET: For employment, income and job quality
The TVET programmes give emphasis to education that guarantees job opportunities after a course lasting some years
The slogan “Prosperous Nepal, Happy Nepalis” can be achieved when all unemployed citizens get employment opportunities to sustain their livelihood.
The Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) constituted in 1989 has been promoting technical and vocational trainings in line with its motto ‘Skilling Nepal for People’s Prosperity’.
Scrutinising these mottos, we can acclaim that technical and vocational education and training (TVET) tries to ensure practical-based, inclusive and equitable job opportunities to the youths for the prosperity of the people in a short period.
According to the 15th periodic plan, the unemployment rate was 11.4 per cent in 2074/75, which is expected to decrease to 6 per cent in 2080/81 and 3 per cent in 2100/01. This can be achieved by the mobilisation and dispersion of TVET programmes with sustainability by following the concept of equity.
The purpose of the 15th Plan is to make Nepal a high income nation by minimising poverty through productive employment and justifiable distribution. The TVET programmes give emphasis to education that guarantees job opportunities after a course lasting some years.
Technical education prepares students academically and vocationally, which involves science and modern technology. It creates manpower in the field of agriculture, information technology and industry.
The courses are offered in post- high-school curricula of two years. Vocational education qualifies trainees for jobs or careers from a trade to craft, from engineering, accountancy and nursing to medicine, architecture and pharmacy.
The major function of technical and vocational education is to create skilled manpower and enhance an individual’s manual skill proficiency. The courses under TVET help build a strong base, allowing students to get a job more quickly. TVET programmes have done away with rote learning under the traditional education system to establish quality, practical-based and job-oriented education in Nepal.
TVET programmes are focussed on advancing the nation by improving the income of every Nepali. The per capita Gross National Product (GNP) of Nepal in 2074/75 was $1047, which is expected to increase to $1,595 in 2080/81. In order to realise the goal, the TVET programmes can play a vital role in providing employment opportunities to all jobless people on the very ground of equity, enhancing the quality of jobs and increasing the per capital income.
TVET programmes ensure employment opportunities to the widely dispersed youths, providing trainings and various practical courses.
Moreover, while comparing the education of CTEVT with the traditional education system, the former is better, more effective and efficient. Many youths remain jobless even after completing their Master’s degree. A technical course after SLC would have landed them a quality job years back. So those in quest of job opportunities soon and one that pays good money are encouraged to take up TVET courses. The developed countries are prospering today because they have ensured TVET programmes in their countries.
Our neighbouring country India recently released its National Education Policy 2020, which has given immense priority to vocational education and trainings, demonstrating the importance of technical and vocational education/ trainings.
Similarly, Nepalis aren’t even sustaining their livelihood by doing low-paid jobs, whereas CTEVT offers secure and well-paid work after the completion of TVET courses. According to the Economic Survey 2076/77, the population living below the poverty line is 16.67 per cent, whereas multi-dimensional poverty is 28.6 per cent, which can be minimised after the availability of TVET courses even in the remote areas. Minimising poverty to 11 per cent in 2080/81 and 0 per cent in 2100/01 can be noticeably achieved if all unemployed people get job opportunities.
The economic survey has said that there are 4.7 million youths working abroad, among them 4.5 million are males and 200,000 are females. The survey even says that 74.5 per cent of the youths employed in foreign lands are unskilled. If we can provide vocational training and technical education to them, they will definitely earn more abroad. Also they can be gainfully employed upon their return home.
The Right to Education is provisioned in Article 32 as a fundamental right in the constitution of Nepal. The education sector is seeing positive transformation; but the theoretical approach to learning as in the traditional education system doesn’t ensure employment opportunities.
‘The Right to Employment’ enlisted in Article 33 as another fundamental right in the constitution can be executed properly after the dispersion of TVET programmes not only in the urban areas but also in the countryside on the basis of equity.
CTEVT is functioning well to empower the common people as around 6,000 people from each of the provinces got trained in 2075/76, which is encouraging.
However, CTEVT should attempt to be more responsible and mobilise the programmes efficiently to make people aware about the TVET projects.
CTEVT shouldn’t focus only on the urban people; rather it should extend the programmes to the rural areas. CTEVT should stop emphasising on opening its programmes in the constituencies as this does not guarantee efficiency of the TVET programmes.
Along with collaboration with government agencies, CTEVT must expand the programmes through which both privileged and under-privileged people can become aware of TVET projects. It must engineer the curriculum by scrutinising and synthesising the demand of the market and industries in order to have the best consequences.
The purpose of the 15th Plan is to make Nepal a high income nation by minimising poverty through productive employment and justifiable distribution.