The concept of TVET: Strategy and policy

Swiss agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) has played a vital role in upgrading and expanding TVET programs in Nepal by establishing Technical Schools since CTEVT was established

TVET is an international term that was born in 1999 through UNESCO Second International Congress held in Seoul on Technical and Vocational Education.

The term TVET reads as Technical and Vocational Education and Training as vital means of facilitating poverty reduction and maximization of social and economic benefits to improve rural livelihoods and lives, particularly for poor and disadvantaged youth and women.

In Nepal, the concept of TVET is not new. The TEVT efforts so far are unorganized and scattered. For the purpose of formulating policies, implementing and managing the newly developed Technical School System, a national level Technical and Vocational Education Committee (TEVC) was formed in 1982.

The Directorate of Technical and Vocational Education (DTVE) was established in the same year as a division of Ministry of Education. Furthermore, after the realization of the need for a unified structure for coordinating, developing and strengthening TEVT in Nepal, the Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training Act, 1989 established the Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) in Nepal.

Further, the Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) constituted in 1989 (2045 BS), is a national autonomous apex body of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) sector committed to the production of technical and skillful human resources required by the nation.

To operationalize TVET, CTVET under Ministry of Education is operating through coordination and collaboration of national and international agencies,

donors, I(NGO), technical service providers and social  as well as private organizations.

Then, to expand the physical facilities and institutional capacity of TVET in Nepal, CTEVT has developed relations and linkages with development partners. As a result, Asian Development Bank (ADB), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Department for International Development (DFID previously known as Organization for Development and Cooperation- ODC), United Mission to Nepal (UMN), Government of Denmark, Government of India, Government of China, KOICA and others have contributed in establishing technical institutes and expanding their capacity.

The contribution made by the partners include Colombo Plan Staff Colleges for Technician Education, an Inter-governmental International organization for human resources development in Asia and the Pacific Region established in 1969. CPSC was founded by 26 countries, including Nepal but, at present, there are 17 member countries.

CPSC’s programs and services are primarily intended to equip TVET personnel in the member countries including Nepal with up-to-date knowledge and skills in various areas of interest. CPSC is the only regional institution established specifically to enhance the quality of TVET; CPSC provides leadership in this regard by designing and conducting various programs and courses in different levels.

CTEVT as a member organization of this organization has established regular linkage in the field of human resource development. Asian Development Bank (ADB) has made significant contribution to develop and expand TVET in Nepal by establishing many technical schools under CTEVT system in various regions of Nepal.

The first contribution of the bank was to support for establishment of Lahan Technical School in 1983 through Sagarmatha Integrated Project. Later on, the bank supported establishing and upgrading technical schools through Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVT) Project: In addition, the bank has supported  strengthening the capacity of human resource of CTEVT providing training and higher education opportunities.

Moreover, the bank at present is supporting  Skills Development Project (SDP) providing Market Oriented Short-term Training (MOST), particularly to the women, Dalits and the disadvantaged communities of Nepal.

Swiss agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) has played a vital role in upgrading and expanding TVET programs in Nepal by establishing Technical Schools since CTEVT was established.

To conceptualize and internalize TVET at all horizontal and vertical levels among all categories of people among governmental, social and private organizations, political and beneficiary levels for making citizens skilled, we should plan to review and reform national TVET Policy 2012 aligned with Constitution of Nepal (2015), its federalization  and different related policies.

Urgently the Ministry of Education and CTVET aligned with concerned line ministries, private sector (FNCCI,CNI,) NGO Federation, Journalist Federation, other technical service providers and other social and political organizations should be actively engaged through TVET Mutillateral and Multi-stakeholders Dialogue (MMD) Process to bloster TVET opportunities from effective management.

Further, for making conducive co-ordination among public and private sector service provider institutions there are diverse opportunities. So multiple partners should collaborate for TVET management to succeed in a larger and massive scale for making skilled Nepalis  for enhancing economic growth and social prosperity of  Nepal.

Gupta is an agri-graduate and development professional